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Mastering Nutrition

Hi, I'm Chris Masterjohn and I have a PhD in Nutritional Sciences. I am an entrepreneur in all things fitness, health, and nutrition. In this show I combine my scientific expertise with my out-of-the-box thinking to translate complex science into new, practical ideas that you can use to help yourself on your journey to vibrant health. This show will allow you to master the science of nutrition and apply it to your own life like a pro.
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Mastering Nutrition
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Sep 25, 2017

Can athletes fat-adapt their workouts? This lesson lays down the principles of exercise biochemistry and physiology needed to understand the importance of the three energy systems supporting energy metabolism in skeletal muscle: the phosphagen system (ATP and creatine), anaerobic glycolysis (dependent on carbs), and oxidative phosphorylation (dependent on carbs, fat, or protein). We discuss why maximal intensity always depends on carbs if the intensity and duration are sufficient to deplete phosphocreatine concentrations, and clarify the window of time and intensity that can be fat-adapted. This sets the foundation for the next lesson, which looks at the evidence of how carbohydrate restriction and ketogenic diets impact sports performance.

For the full episode, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/17

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 18, 2017

“Anaplerosis” means “to fill up” and refers to substrates and reactions that fill up a metabolic pathway as its own substrates leak out for other purposes. The citric acid cycle is a central example of this because its intermediates are often used to synthesize other components the cell needs. On a mixed diet where carbohydrate provides much of the energy, pyruvate serves as the main anaplerotic substrate. During carbohydrate restriction, protein takes over. Fat is the least anaplerotic of the macronutrients because the main product of fatty acid metabolism, acetyl CoA, is not directly anaplerotic. There are several very minor pathways that allow some anaplerosis from fat, but they are unlikely to eclipse the need for protein to support this purpose during carbohydrate restriction. Thus, carbs and protein are the two primary sources of anaplerosis. This means carbs can spare the need for protein, and that protein requirements rise on a carb-restricted diet.

For the full lesson, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/16

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 12, 2017

One of the advantages of carbohydrate over fat is the ability to support the production of lactate. This is so important that carbohydrate is physiologically essential to red blood cells and certain brain cells known as astrocytes. For the same reason, it plays an important role in supporting the energy requirements of the lens and cornea, kidney medulla, and testes, and supports the quick boosts of peak energy needed during stressful situations that include high-intensity exercise. The biochemical role of lactate is to rescue NAD+ during times when NAD+ becomes limiting for glycolysis and glycolysis becomes a meaningful source of ATP. Through the Cori cycle, lactate can extract energy from the liver’s supply of ATP and deliver it to other tissues such as skeletal muscle in the form of glucose. This lesson fleshes out the physiological and biochemical roles of lactate and serves as a foundation for the next lesson, which explores the role of carbohydrate in supporting sports performance.

Watch the full lesson at chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/17

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

 

Sep 10, 2017

Did you realize that thiamin deficiency can be caused by your environment? In the old days, beriberi was associated with the consumption of white rice. Nowadays, refined foods are an unlikely cause of thiamin deficiency because they are fortified. We associate deficiency syndromes such as Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff’s psychosis primarily with chronic alcoholism. Yet there are regional outbreaks of thiamin deficiency among wildlife attributed to poorly characterized thiamin antagonists in the environment. Thiamin-destroying amoebas can pollute water, thiamin-destroying bacteria have been isolated from human feces, and thiamin-destroying fungi have also been identified. Could toxic indoor molds and systemic infections play a role as well?

Thiamin deficiency is overwhelmingly neurological in nature and hurts the metabolism of carbohydrate much more than fat. Indeed, preliminary evidence suggests thiamin supplementation can help mitigate glucose intolerance. Ketogenic diets are the diets that maximally spare thiamin and are best characterized as treatments for neurological disorders. Anecdotally, ketogenic diet-responsive neurological problems sometimes arise as a result of infection. Could ketogenic diets be treating problems with thiamin or thiamin-dependent enzymes? One must exercise caution here: fat contains little thiamin, and ketogenic diets can actually cause thiamin deficiency if they don’t contain added B vitamins. The relationships between thiamin, glucose metabolism, and neurological health are remarkable and desperately need our attention.

For the full lesson, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/14

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 9, 2017

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the one decarboxylation step that carbohydrate undergoes to generate acetyl CoA, which accounts for the one carbon dioxide molecule produced in carbohydrate metabolism that is not produced during the metabolism of fat. It also accounts for why burning carbs requires twice as much thiamin as fat. In fact, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is remarkably analogous to the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, sharing all the same cofactors and catalyzing virtually the same reactions. In this lesson, we look at why this has to be true and how it works. This provides the foundation for our deeply practical look at thiamin in the next lesson.

chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/13

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Sep 7, 2017

Since carbs are richer in oxygen than fat, they consume less water in their metabolism and release more carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide puts stress on the lungs and its generation should be restricted in the case of lung injury to allow healing. This calls for a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. On the other hand, carbon dioxide is needed to support the action of vitamin K and biotin, and to promote delivery of oxygen to tissues during exercise.

In our first glimpse into glycolysis and beta-oxidation, we find that understanding the basic chemical makeup of these molecules is deeply relevant to how we would manipulate the diet in many contexts of health and disease.

For the full lesson, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/12

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 6, 2017

Now we take it clinical: how do we use what we’ve learned so far to interpret the section of a urinary organic acids test that reports the citric acid cycle metabolites?

We begin by looking at the underlying chemistry to explain the curious absence of oxaloacetate on these tests. We conclude by mastering the ability to spot three unique patterns: energy overload, oxidative stress, and thiamin deficiency.

For the full lesson go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/11

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 5, 2017

This lesson looks at the fundamental principle that atomic oxygen is the limiting factor for the release of carbon dioxide in metabolism, and when we don’t have enough we take it from water. This will become very relevant when we cover fats versus carbohydrates, because they consume different amounts of water and release different amounts of carbon dioxide for this very reason. That, in turn, relates to a number of health endpoints such as the functions of vitamin K and biotin, delivery of oxygen to tissues, and the stress placed on the lungs during breathing.

Here, we look at the principle in the citric acid cycle. In doing so, we see that, while textbooks only point to two water molecules consumed, a third water molecule is irreversibly consumed to donate oxygen to the cycle via phosphate.

For the full lesson, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/7

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 4, 2017

This lesson addresses the curious case of why CoA makes a brief cameo in the citric acid cycle during the formation of succinyl CoA only to leave again in the next step. We dig into the chemistry underlying the high-energy thioester bond that CoA forms with acyl groups, which explains more broadly one of the key roles of sulfur in energy metabolism. We conclude by looking at how the appearance of CoA allows us to harness energy released during the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to form ATP directly during “substrate-level phosphorylation,” or, alternatively, to use energy from ATP to invest in the synthesis of heme.

chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/9

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 3, 2017

This complex is so rich in biochemical concepts and relevance to health and disease. Having done the dirty work of looking at its organic chemistry mechanisms in the last lesson, here we explore broadly applicable biochemistry principles like energetic coupling and substrate channeling. We look at how thiamin deficiency, oxidative stress, arsenic, and heavy metal poisoning can affect metabolism, and how to recognize markers of these processes in blood or urine. We make the subtle yet critical distinction between oxidative stress and oxidative damage. We look at the role of this complex in Alzheimer’s disease. We then turn to the product of this complex, succinyl CoA, to examine how it provides an entry into the cycle for odd-chain fatty acids and certain amino acids and an exit out of the cycle for the synthesis of heme. In doing so, we look at the roles of vitamins B12 and B6 in these processes, the use of methylmalonic acid to diagnose B12 deficiency, and the ability of B6 deficiency to cause sideroblastic anemia.

For the full video, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/8

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 2, 2017

The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is marvelously complex and incredibly rich in details that are relevant to the big picture of metabolism and to many issues of health and disease. Today, we break down what actually happens so that we can spend all of Wednesday’s lesson discussing the rich array of relevant principles it brings to light.

For the full video, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/7

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Sep 1, 2017

Are you interested in working with me one-on-one so I can help you better meet your health goals?

Good news! I’m now accepting new clients for both hourly consultations and health and wellness packages.

Here are the core things I’m best at that I would love to do for you:

  • Help you develop actionable priorities and an overall strategy for improving your health.
  • Discuss your experiences with you and suggest useful tests that you could ask your doctor about.
  • Analyze the results of genetic tests, digital food logs, and blood and urine measurements for markers of health and nutritional status. I can then use these analyses to suggest practical strategies that you could implement with proper supervision of a health care professional.

If you want to want to read more about what I have to offer, head over to the main consultations page:

Health and Wellness Consultations With Chris Masterjohn, PhD

Although I have no plans to expire the offer, I suggest you act rather swiftly if you want to book sessions between now and February because the spots available from September through January are limited and will fill up fast. After February, my availability is much more open. 

Once again, here are the links you may need:

Whether sooner or later, I look forward to working with you and helping you fulfill your health goals.

If you have any questions about how this works, please do not hesitate to email me at chris [at] chrismasterjohnphd {dot} com.

Sep 1, 2017

If you develop dry skin on a low-fat diet, especially if you're eating egg whites and throwing out the yolks, it could be a biotin deficiency. Or, it could be an essential fatty acid deficiency. Either way, egg yolks and liver come to the rescue.

Aug 31, 2017

This lesson looks at the third step of the citric acid cycle in much more detail, digging into the organic chemistry concepts involved in the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. We dive deep into this because it’s the only way to explain why this step parts ways with most other decarboxylation reactions in that it does not require thiamin (vitamin B1).

This, in turn, provides a basis for understanding why burning carbohydrate for fuel requires twice as much thiamin than burning fat, and why high-fat, low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets can be used to overcome problems with thiamin deficiency or defects in thiamin-dependent enzymes. We conclude by looking at how this step allows the interconversion of amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates, the role of vitamin B6 in this process, and the use of enzymes known as transaminases to diagnose B6 deficiency and liver dysfunction.

For the full episode, go to chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/6

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Aug 30, 2017

Do you get dry skin when you put on muscle mass? It could be a zinc deficiency. Here's how to take care of it.

Aug 29, 2017

The fifth MWM Energy Metabolism lesson explores the third and fourth steps of the citric acid cycle and explains how the rate of ATP production is regulated according to the cell’s need for ATP. Together with lesson four, it explains how cells regulate their ATP production according to their needs and abilities. In the course of exploring this theme, we look at the role of AMP kinase (AMPK) in promoting energy uptake when ATP levels are low.

Watch the full lesson at chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/5

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Aug 28, 2017

This lesson explores the first two steps of the citric acid cycle and explains how the rate of ATP production is regulated according to the abilities of the electron transport chain. Together with lesson five, it explains how cells regulate their ATP production according to their needs and abilities. In the course of exploring this theme, we examine the role of reactive oxygen species in diabetes.

Watch the full lesson at chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/4

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Aug 27, 2017

This lesson provides an overview of the basic objectives of using the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain to make ATP. We start here because, no matter whether we burn protein, carbs, or fat, these two interrelated systems are what is shared in common.

Watch the full lesson at chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/3

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

 
Aug 26, 2017

The second MWM energy metabolism looks at how we use enzymes to exert exquisite control over what happens inside our bodies.

If the second law of thermodynamics holds that entropy is always increasing, why don’t we reach maximum entropy right away? Why do we observe any order at all?  The activation energy represents the resistance to change that can be found in any substance. We exploit the concept biologically by maintaining a body temperature that provides insufficient energy for most relevant reactions to go forward without catalysis, and imposing upon this backdrop an expansive repertoire of enzymes that can, in a regulated fashion, lower the energy barriers sufficiently for reactions to go forward.

This lesson looks at how they do that, and how we regulate their activity.

Watch the full lesson at chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/2

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Aug 25, 2017

The first MWM Energy Metabolism lesson answers the question, why do we have to eat such an enormous amount of food?

The answer is to comply with the second law of thermodynamics. If you have a chemistry background, you should recognize this as a light review of the thermodynamics unit from a general chemistry class, with its most essential concepts teased out and packed into a half hour lesson. If you don’t, you can use this as a basic foundation for understanding the biochemistry to follow.

The lesson relates the 2nd law to food coloring dispersing in water, how a hydropower plant operates, ATP production, and why we need to eat our bodyweight in food more than once a month. In the process, we have a little fun.

Watch the full lesson at chrismasterjohnphd.com/mwm/2/1.

Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

Aug 25, 2017

Masterclass With Masterjohn Energy Metabolism is a structured course that begins with foundational principles and progresses to advanced topics to give you everything you need to know about the biochemistry of how we break down food for energy, use the energy, and store the excess.

It broadcasts FREE on YouTube and Facebook twice a week and is now in its 31st lesson.

As a subscriber to the Mastering Nutrition podcast, you will now get the cliff notes of these lessons in audio format. 

This gives you three ways to engage with the course:

  • If you just want the cliff notes, sit back and relax. As long as you're subscribed to the Mastering Nutrition podcast, they'll pop up in your feed one by one, every day that there's no other content released in the feed. That begins with lesson one later today.
  • If you want to watch the full lessons, you can do so using the YouTube playlist, by going to the videos section of my Facebook page and playing the playlist, or by going to chrismasterjohnphd.com, hovering over "Masterclass" in the main menu on desktop and clicking the dropdown arrow to the right of "Masterclass" on mobile, and choosing "The Free Version."
  • Sign up for MWM Pro for early access to content, enhanced keyword searching, self-pacing tools, downloadable audio and transcripts, a rich array of hyperlinked further reading suggestions, and a community with a forum for each lesson.

However you choose to engage, enjoy! 

Aug 12, 2017

MTHFR is an enzyme that allows folate (vitamin B9) to support the cellular process of methylation, which is important for the synthesis of creatine and phosphatidylcholine, the regulation of gene expression, neurotransmitter metabolism, and dozens of other processes. There are two common polymorphisms that decrease its activity, A1298C and C677T, with C677T having the stronger effect. Genetic decreases in MTHFR activity are associated with cardiovascular disease, neurologic and psychiatric disorders, pregnancy complications and birth defects, and cancer.

While discussions of these polymorphism tend to focus on repleting methyl-folate, this should only be a small piece of the puzzle. The bigger pieces of the puzzle are restoring choline, creatine, and glycine. 

In this episode, I describe how the methylation system works, how it's regulated, and how it's altered with MTHFR variations. I then use this to develop a detailed dietary strategy and an evaluative strategy to make sure the dietary strategy is working.

Show notes coming soon!

This episode is brought to you by Ample Meal. Ample is a meal-in-a-bottle that takes a total of two minutes to prepare, consume, and clean up. It provides a balance of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, plus all the vitamins and minerals you need in a single meal, all from a blend of natural ingredients. The protein is from whey and collagen. The fat is from coconut oil and macadamia nut oil. The carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals come exclusively from food sources like sweet potatoes, bananas, cocoa powder, wheat and barley grass, and chlorella. I use Ample on Mondays when I have 12 hours of appointments with breaks no longer than 15 minutes. It keeps my brain going while I power through the long day, never letting food prep make me late for an appointment. Head to amplemeal.com and enter the promo code “MASTERJOHN” at checkout for a 15% discount off your first order.

This episode is brought to you by US Wellness Meats. I use their liverwurst as a convenient way to make a sustainable habit of eating a diversity of organ meats. They also have a milder braunschweiger and an even milder head cheese that gives you similar benefits, as well as a wide array of other meat products, all from animals raised on pasture. Head to grasslandbeef.com and enter promo code “Chris” at checkout to get a 15% discount on any order that is at least 7 pounds and is at least $75 after applying the discount but under 40 pounds (it can be 39.99 lbs, but not 40). You can use this discount code not once, but twice!

Jul 30, 2017

Insulin is almost universally considered a hormone whose primary purpose is to regulate blood glucose levels. Indeed, it does this. But is that the whole picture? When we look at what governs pancreatic insulin secretion inside the beta-cell, it's about total energy and the versatility of the short-term energy supply, not about glucose. When we look at what insulin does to energy metabolism, it does far more than regulate blood glucose: it governs how we use energy and what we do with it.

What is insulin really doing? Find out in this episode. I can't promise the episode is practical, but I promise it's incredibly thought-provoking.

You can find the show notes at chrismasterjohnphd.com/45.

This episode is brought to you by Ample Meal. Ample is a meal-in-a-bottle that takes a total of two minutes to prepare, consume, and clean up. It provides a balance of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, plus all the vitamins and minerals you need in a single meal, all from a blend of natural ingredients. The protein is from whey and collagen. The fat is from coconut oil and macadamia nut oil. The carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals come exclusively from food sources like sweet potatoes, bananas, cocoa powder, wheat and barley grass, and chlorella. I use Ample on Mondays when I have 12 hours of appointments with breaks no longer than 15 minutes. It keeps my brain going while I power through the long day, never letting food prep make me late for an appointment. Head to amplemeal.com and enter the promo code “MASTERJOHN” at checkout for a 15% discount off your first order.

This episode is brought to you by US Wellness Meats. I use their liverwurst as a convenient way to make a sustainable habit of eating a diversity of organ meats. They also have a milder braunschweiger and an even milder head cheese that gives you similar benefits, as well as a wide array of other meat products, all from animals raised on pasture. Head to grasslandbeef.com and enter promo code “Chris” at checkout to get a 15% discount on any order that is at least 7 pounds and is at least $75 after applying the discount but under 40 pounds (it can be 39.99 lbs, but not 40). You can use this discount code not once, but twice!

Here's what you'll find in this episode, and more:

00:55 Cliff Notes

12:45 Insulin is widely perceived as a response to blood glucose, yet there are a variety of reasons to see it as a response to short-term energy status and the versatility of that short-term energy.

14:48 Defining "insulin signaling."

18:00 Dietary effects on insulin and glucagon: fat, protein, and carbohydrate.

21:45 Effects of insulin outside of energy metabolism: for example, glutathione synthesis, production and activation of thyroid hormone, protection against glycation.

28:10 Insulin signaling is directly triggered by the level of ATP in the pancreatic beta-cell.

35:10 Amplification signals in beta-cell: anaplerosis, cataplerosis, lipogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway.

45:30 The anatomy and physiology of macronutrient transport mean that fat and carbohydrate are delivered to the pancreatic beta-cell in very different ways, resulting from circulatory routes and the relative expression of glucose transporters and lipoprotein lipase.

01:07:15 Unique roles of glucose in specialized energetic pathways.

01:07:50 Cytosolic ATP generation depends on glucose and is important to red blood cells, astrocytes, the lens and cornea of the eye, the kidney medulla, the testes, and under conditions of high-intensity exercise, stress, hypoxia, or suffocation.

01:11:10 Only glucose can allow a tissue to borrow energy from the liver in the Cori cycle.

01:14:30 Glucose is the primary anaplerotic substrate; protein is secondary; fat has little anaplerotic pathway.

01:15:50 Only glucose can support the pentose phosphate pathway, which provides NAPDH and 5-carbon sugars for DNA; RNA, all of the energy carriers in energy metabolism (NADPH, NADH, FADH2, Coenzyme A, ATP); synthesis of nucleotides, neurotransmitters, fatty acids, and cholesterol; recycling of vitamin K and folate.

01:21:40 Insulin as a response to total energy and energetic versatility.

Jul 22, 2017

Do carbs and insulin make you fat?

The argument centers on the ability of insulin to promote the conversion of carbohydrate to fat and lock fat in adipose tissue, as well as the necessity of glucose to provide the backbone to fat molecules within adipose tissue. But the argument ignores that all of these pathways are fundamentally regulated at a biochemical level by how much energy you need and how much you have. In episode 44 of Mastering Nutrition, we take a deep dive into the details of the biochemistry and see how insulin serves as a gauge of whole-body energy and glucose availability but simply can't be the thing that makes you fat.

This episode is brought to you by Ample Meal. Ample is a meal-in-a-bottle that takes a total of two minutes to prepare, consume, and clean up. It provides a balance of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, plus all the vitamins and minerals you need in a single meal, all from a blend of natural ingredients. The protein is from whey and collagen. The fat is from coconut oil and macadamia nut oil. The carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals come exclusively from food sources like sweet potatoes, bananas, cocoa powder, wheat and barley grass, and chlorella. I use Ample on Mondays when I have 12 hours of appointments with breaks no longer than 15 minutes. It keeps my brain going while I power through the long day, never letting food prep make me late for an appointment. Head to amplemeal.com and enter the promo code “MASTERJOHN” at checkout for a 15% discount off your first order.

This episode is brought to you by US Wellness Meats. I use their liverwurst as a convenient way to make a sustainable habit of eating a diversity of organ meats. They also have a milder braunschweiger and an even milder head cheese that gives you similar benefits, as well as a wide array of other meat products, all from animals raised on pasture. Head to grasslandbeef.com and enter promo code “Chris” at checkout to get a 15% discount on any order that is at least 7 pounds and is at least $75 after applying the discount but under 40 pounds (it can be 39.99 lbs, but not 40). You can use this discount code not once, but twice!

Show notes for this episode are found at chrismasterjohnphd.com/44.

In this episode, you'll find all of the following and more:

00:45 Cliff Notes

10:15 The biochemistry and physiology of the carbohydrate/insulin hypothesis of obesity: insulin stimulates de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis), promoting the conversion of carbohydrate to fat; insulin stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) at adipose tissue, locking fat into fat cells; since adipose tissue lacks glycerol kinase, it cannot reuse the glycerol backbone of fats digested by lipoprotein lipase, and dietary carbohydrate is needed to provide the glycerol 3-phosphate that forms the backbone of newly resynthesized triglycerides.

16:30 All biochemical pathways are regulated by cellular energy status. Key players are ATP, ADP, AMP, AMP kinase (AMPK), NADH/NAD+, FADH2/FAD, Ca2+, CoA and acyl CoAs, and citrate.

30:42 Although insulin promote storage of fat in fat tissue, this can be overridden by low energy status.

40:10 Although insulin promotes fat storage, it causes a proportionate increase glucose oxidation, so no net change in caloric balance.

46:10 Glucose oxidation in muscle is driven by energy status and that determines the availability of glucose to adipose tissue.

01:00:45 Glucose can act as the source of glycerol 3-P for adipose tissue triglyceride synthesis, but it isn’t necessary because of gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. Furthermore, while it can serve this role, the degree to which it does so is driven by energy status.

01:05:50 Glucose can act as a source of glycerol 3-P for adipose, but it needs a source of fatty acids, which come mainly from fat as long as energy status is high enough.

01:06:50 Insulin can drive de novo lipogenesis, but only when energy status is high enough.

01:20:05 What happens when we eat carbs alone, fat alone, or both in the context of low and high energy status.

01:32:20 The path to weight loss is the path to a sustainable caloric deficit.

 

Jul 17, 2017

Our consciousness is like a net. We want the net to be fluid enough to let thoughts that bother us pass through without grabbing our attention, but strong enough to grab on to the ideas and motivations that will drive us to achieve what we value in life. Nutrition has a big impact on this net. In this episode, learn how foods like liver, egg yolks, meat, leafy greens, legumes, collagen, bone broth, spinach, wheat, and beets can impact how fluid or stable your mind is by impacting the methylation of dopamine, and how to achieve the proper balance.

This episode is brought to you by Ample Meal. Ample is a meal-in-a-bottle that takes a total of two minutes to prepare, consume, and clean up. It provides a balance of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, plus all the vitamins and minerals you need in a single meal, all from a blend of natural ingredients. The protein is from whey and collagen. The fat is from coconut oil and macadamia nut oil. The carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals come exclusively from food sources like sweet potatoes, bananas, cocoa powder, wheat and barley grass, and chlorella. I use Ample on Mondays when I have 12 hours of appointments with breaks no longer than 15 minutes. It keeps my brain going while I power through the long day, never letting food prep make me late for an appointment. Head to amplemeal.com and enter "MASTERJOHN" at checkout for a 15% discount off your first order.

This episode is brought to you by US Wellness Meats. I use their liverwurst as a convenient way to make a sustainable habit of eating a diversity of organ meats. They also have a milder braunschweiger and an even milder head cheese that gives you similar benefits, as well as a wide array of other meat products, all from animals raised on pasture. Head to grasslandbeef.com and enter promo code “Chris” at checkout to get a 15% discount on any order that is at least 7 pounds and is at least $75 after applying the discount but under 40 pounds (it can be 39.99 lbs, but not 40). You can use this discount code not once, but twice!

In this episode, you'll find all the following and more:

00:38  Cliff Notes

12:15  Three stories illustrating how foods impact mental stability and fluidity.

13:00  How veganism profoundly worsened my OCD and panic attacks and going Weston A. Price made them disappear.

 18:55  Jeffrey is an entrepreneur who uses intermittent fasting and low-protein lunches to remain hyper-focused through the workday, but at the risk of an occasional panic attack.

 22:05  Jordan uses methylation supplements to optimize his energy and mental focus, but can experience a spectrum of methylation states that range from bodily tiredness on one end to intense focus suitable for creative and analytic work in the middle, to flighty productivity suitable for errands on the high end, to a severe crash characterized by apathy.

 26:50  The methylation system and the roles of sulfur amino acids (methionine and cysteine), magnesium, ATP, B6, serine and glycine, folate, B12, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, choline, betaine, and creatine.

 34:18  The two principle fates of homocysteine.

 40:10  Glycine as the endogenous buffer of extra methyl groups.

 42:40  Obtaining betaine and choline from foods.

 45:40  Creatine as a methyl group sparer.

 48:20  Niacin and nicotinamide riboside as a tax on the methylation system.

 50:25  Tonic and phasic dopamine, and how methylation mediated by catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) regulates the balance.

 57:20  How the balance of tonic and phasic dopamine determines the ease of switching mental states.

1:03:50  Worrier vs. warrior phenotype.

1:09:10  Histamine in the brain as an alertness signal and a potential contributor to panic attacks.

1:11:55  Explaining the three stories.

1:22:00  Practical conclusions.

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